Prof Jenny Stauber. 2018 IAH / NCGRT Distinguished Lecture Series. This talk will highlight some of the emerging contaminants from industrial, mining, coal seam gas and defence activities e.g. PFOS, that have the potential to impact groundwater quality and ecological health. This requires a better understanding of how the properties of unsaturated and saturated zones may affect contaminant bioavailability and the response of groundwater biota. Case studies demonstrating the application of new ecotoxicological tools such as bioassays and molecular (-omics) techniques to assess impacts on groundwater biota and biodiversity will be discussed.